Paul on his First Missionary Journey. Pisidian Antioch marked an important turning point in Paul’s ministry, as the city became the first to have a fully Gentile Christian community. On the sabbath, they went to the local synagogue and were invited to speak to the congregation. Their message was received with great interest, and on the following sabbath “almost the whole city gathered” to hear them. Some converts were made, but some of the Jews stirred up opposition against them and they were driven out of the city. Paul and Barnabas then went to Iconium , Lystra and Derbe. On their return journey, they stopped by Antioch and encouraged the Christian converts.
Blomberg, The Case for Christ 26 Because of the lack of original texts, it has been very difficult to date the canonical gospels as to when they were written or even when they first emerge in the historical record, as these two dates may differ. According to this scholarship, the gospels must have been written after the devastation because they refer to it.
However, conservative believers maintain the early dates and assert that the destruction of the temple and Judea mentioned in the gospels constitutes “prophecy,” demonstrating Jesus’s divine powers. The substantiation for this early, first-century range of dates, both conservative and liberal, is internal only, as there is no external evidence, whether historical or archaeological, for the existence of any gospels at that time.
Peter’s activity and death in Rome is so clearly established, we possess no precise information regarding the details of his Roman sojourn.
Ignatius of Antioch Thrown to the Lions St. Ignatius of Antioch bishop and martyr was an important bishop who suffered martyrdom early in the second century. He was born in Syria. According to legend, he was the child whom Jesus placed in the midst of His disciples to teach them humility cf. Ignatius became the second or third bishop of Antioch, an important Syrian city and a major center of early Christianity.
During a persecution when Christians were ordered to deny their faith under pain of death, Ignatius, by then an old man, refused to do so.
403 – Forbidden
Jerome De viris illust. Of later collections of Ignatian letters which have been preserved, the oldest is known as the “long recension”. This collection, the author of which is unknown, dates from the latter part of the fourth century. It contains the seven genuine and six spurious letters, but even the genuine epistles were greatly interpolated to lend weight to the personal views of its author. For this reason they are incapable of bearing witness to the original form.
Associated with the foregoing is a letter from Mary of Cassobola to Ignatius.
There are thus several good and valid reasons to suspect that, despite current beliefs regarding its date, the gospel of Luke as we have it represents a late second-century creation.
Eusebius and Jerome mention numerous works of Theophilus existing in their time. The ostensible object of Ad Autolycum is to convince a pagan friend, Autolycus, a man of great learning and an earnest seeker after truth, of the divine authority of the Christian religion, while at the same time exhibiting the falsehood and absurdity of paganism. His arguments, drawn almost entirely from the Old Testament , with but very scanty references to the New Testament , are largely chronological.
He makes the truth of Christianity depend on his demonstration that the books of the Old Testament were long anterior to the writings of the Greeks and were divinely inspired. Whatever truth the pagan authors contain he regards as borrowed from Moses and the prophets, who alone declare God’s revelation to man. He contrasts the perfect consistency of the divine oracles, which he regards as a convincing proof of their inspiration, with the inconsistencies of the pagan philosophers.
He contrasts the account of the creation of the universe and of man, on which, together with the history contained in the earlier chapters of Genesis , he comments at great length but with singularly little intelligence, with the statements of Plato , “reputed the wisest of all the Greeks”,  of Aratus , who had the insight to assert that the earth was spherical,  and other Greek writers on whom he pours contempt as mere ignorant retailers of stolen goods.
He supplies a series of dates, beginning with Adam and ending with Marcus Aurelius , who had died shortly before he wrote, thus dating this work to the years of the reign of Commodus , Theophilus regards the Sibylline books that were still in Rome as authentic and inspired productions, quoting the Sibylline oracles scholars dispute that these are the same largely as declaring the same truths with the prophets.
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Until the Ascension of Christ Bethsaida St. Peter’s true and original name was Simon, sometimes occurring in the form Symeon. He was the son of Jona Johannes and was born in Bethsaida John 1:
However, on the other hand, the city commune of Antioch supported Bohemond IV of Antioch , on the grounds that he was the closest blood relative to the last ruling prince, Bohemond III.
The Crusaders’ Siege of Antioch conquered the city in At this time, the bulk of far eastern trade traveled through Egypt, but in the second half of the 12th century Nur ed-Din and later Saladin brought order to Muslim Syria, opening up long distance trade routes, including to Antioch and on to its new port, St Symeon , which had replaced Seleucia Pieria. However, the Mongol conquests of the 13th century altered the main trade routes from the far east, as they encouraged merchants to take the overland route through Mongol territory to the Black Sea, reducing the prosperity of Antioch.
Tancred expanded the territory of Antioch by conquering Byzantine Cilicia , Tarsus , and Adana in and founding the principality, Byzantine Latakia , in In Bohemond enraged by an earlier defeat when he, allianced with Edessa, attacked Aleppo , and Baldwin of Bourcq and Joscelin of Courtenay Bourcq’s most powerful vassal were briefly captured, as well as the Byzantines recapturing of Cilicia and the harbour and lower town of Lattakieh, he renamed Tancred as the regent of Antioch and sailed for Europe with the intent of gaining support for an attack against the Greeks.
Bohemond was outwitted by Alexius, who deployed his forces to cut the invaders’ supply lines whilst avoiding direct confrontation. The Latins were weakened by hunger and proved unable to break Durazzo’s defenses. Bohemond capitulated in September and was forced to accede to a peace accord, the Treaty of Devol. The terms of this agreement stipulated that Bohemond was to hold Antioch for the remainder of his life as the emperor’s subject and the Greek patriarch was to be restored to power in the city.
However Tancred refused to honour the Treaty of Devol in which Bohemond swore an oath, and it is not until that it truly became a vassal state of the Byzantine Empire. After the death of Tancred, the principality passed to Roger of Salerno , who helped rebuild Antioch after an earthquake destroyed its foundations in With the defeat of Roger’s crusading army and his death at the Battle of Ager Sanguinis in the role of regent was assumed by Baldwin II of Jerusalem , lasting until , with the exception from to when he was briefly captured by the Artuqids and held captive alongside Joscelin of Courtenay.
St. Pelagia of Antioch
Information on Ignatius of Antioch William R. Arguments are still advanced notably by Joly that call into question the authenticity of these documents, but the researches of Zahn and Lightfoot , and their followers continue to dominate the scholarship. Thus the authenticity of a what is not often, though misleadingly, called the “middle recension” is generally accepted.
By the same token, b the so-called “long recension” is usually regarded as a 4th-century perhaps Neo-Arrian revision Hagerdorn This recension is found in numerous Greek and Latin manuscripts and came to be the form in which Ignatius was most often known until Archbishop Ussher, in his Polycarpi et Ignatii Epistolae of , brilliantly unearthed an earlier Latin form of the text akin to that quoted by Eusebius.
Trinity[ edit ] It is most notable for being the earliest extant Christian work to use the word “Trinity” Greek:
The Letters are not in their normal New Testament Order, but in the date order generally agreed by most scholars. All Church members except the apostles were scattered over the countryside of Judea  and Samaria . While reverent men buried Stephen and mourned deeply over him, Saul later the apostle Paul harassed the Church bitterly. Those who were dispersed by this action went throughout the country, preaching the good news of the message as they went. Philip the “deacon” and Evangelist , for instance, went down to the city of Samaria  and preached Christ to the people there.
Philip continues preaching in Samaria; the Apostles Peter and John join him there before returning to Jerusalem; Philip is then directed to another task But an angel of the Lord said to Philip, “Get up and go south down the road which runs from Jerusalem to Gaza , out in the desert. At this very moment an Ethiopian eunuch, a minister and in fact the treasurer to Candace, queen of the Ethiopians, was on his way home after coming to Jerusalem to worship.
Theophilus of Antioch
Later, perhaps on the building of the church over the graves on the Vatican and in the Via Ostiensis, the remains were restored to their former resting-place:
Ignatius of Antioch
After this we made our preparations and went up to Jerusalem .
St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles
The more prominent the Apostles become in the Evangelical narrative , the more conspicuous does Peter appear as the first among them.