Encyclopædia Iranica

See Article History Alternative Titles: The autonomous community of Catalonia occupies a triangular area in the northeastern corner of Spain. It is bordered by France and Andorra to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, the autonomous community of Valencia to the south, and the autonomous community of Aragon to the west. The autonomous community of Catalonia was established by the statute of autonomy of December 18, The government consists of a Generalitat an executive council headed by a president and a unicameral parliament. The capital is Barcelona. Area 12, square miles 32, square km.

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Integrated geography Integrated geography is concerned with the description of the spatial interactions between humans and the natural world. It requires an understanding of the traditional aspects of physical and human geography, as well as the ways that human societies conceptualize the environment. Integrated geography has emerged as a bridge between the human and the physical geography, as a result of the increasing specialisation of the two sub-fields.

Furthermore, as human relationship with the environment has changed as a result of globalization and technological change , a new approach was needed to understand the changing and dynamic relationship. Examples of areas of research in the environmental geography include:

Current Food Security — Safeguarding food insecure populations by establishing underlying causes through satellite, mobile-collected and GIS data storage.

Paralyzed when someone asks what GIS can really do? Looking to diversify your business and services? Precision Farming — Harvesting more bushels per acre while spending less on fertilizer using precision farming and software. How to win the farm using GIS 2. Disease Control — Combating the spread of pests through by identifying critical intervention areas and efficient targeting control interventions. Swiss Alps Farming — Cultivating south-facing slopes in the Swiss Alps using aspect data because it shelters from cold and dry winds which is critical to successful crop growth.

Real-time Crop Yields — Shifting to real-time crop monitoring and targeted, automated responses with drones and precision watering sensors. Current Food Security — Safeguarding food insecure populations by establishing underlying causes through satellite, mobile-collected and GIS data storage. Agri-tourism — Navigating through crop mazes with GPS receivers in the developing field of agri-tourism. Plant Hardiness — Defining distinct boundaries in which plants are capable of growing as defined by climatic conditions.

1000 GIS Applications & Uses – How GIS Is Changing the World

Government reimburses its employees for business travel. The lodging portion of the allowance is based on the cost for a single room at a moderately-priced hotel. The meal portion is based on the costs of an average breakfast, lunch, and dinner including taxes, service charges, and customary tips.

This is the piedmont plain of Kacchi the northern part of it belongs to the district of Sibi that extends up the valleys into the high mountains east of Quetta.

Venezuela History Archeological findings and carbon-dating evidence indicate that human settlements here can be traced back to 13, BC. Venezuela was colonized by Spain in despite resistance from indigenous peoples. It became one of the first Spanish American colonies to declare independence in , but did not securely establish independence until After the defeat of the Spanish by Simon Bolivar and his armies in , it, along with Colombia , Ecuador , and Panama , formed the independent Republic of Gran.

Venezuela emerged from that coalition in to become an independent nation. Since then, and for most of the first half of the 20th century, the country was ruled by generally benevolent military strongmen, who promoted the oil industry and allowed for some social reforms. Democratically elected governments first took place in and Venezuela established its own constitution in In that regard, the popular election of President Hugo Chavez in has caused considerable controversy, especially within the United States, as Venezuela has some of the largest proven oil reserves outside of the Middle East and President Chavez is using same as a regional threat and bargaining chip.

Current concerns in Venezuela include a weakening democracy, a very politicized military, and increased drug-related violence along the Colombian border. In addition, international environmentalists are increasingly concerned about irresponsible mining operations that are endangering the Amazon rain forest and indigenous peoples.

Completed in , the column has stood for more than 1, years. Trajan’s war on the Dacians, a civilization in what is now Romania, was the defining event of his year rule. During the Middle Ages Romanians were also known as Vlachs, a blanket term ultimately of Germanic origin, from the word Walha, used by ancient Germanic peoples to refer to Romance-speaking and Celtic neighbours.

The Jats construct huge embankments across the dry riverbeds to catch and divert the torrential floods.

Geography[ edit ] View of the Tyrrhenian Sea The village lies on a rocky promontory, which lies on the southern border of the Maremma nature reserve, in a dominant position along the whole stretch of coast arriving at Mount Argentario. The surrounding area is characterized by the presence of vegetation typical of Mediterranean scrub and long sandy beaches, lined by pine trees. History[ edit ] Walls of Talamone. An ancient and flourishing city already during the Etruscan period, which saw a decisive battle in BC between Roman and the Celtic hordes who were heading for Rome.

Talamone was razed to the ground by Sulla for the support that its citizens gave to Marius in his attempt to march against Rome after the return from his African exile. Like Orbetello , the late Middle Ages left few marks on Talamone and control was transferred from among the others the Aldobrandeschi to the Republic of Siena , until in the territory was ceded to Spain and became part of the State of Presidi. The city’s name is also linked to Giuseppe Garibaldi and his Expedition of the Thousand in In his route towards Sicily, he made a stop there to stock up on water and weapons.

Geography, History, and Ethnography This article is divided into the following sections: The total number of Baluch in Baluchistan in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan , the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, and elsewhere in Asia and Africa is variously estimated at between three and five million. Their history up to the time when they were drawn into Western colonial history in the 19th century is poorly known. A copious literature has been produced on them since then, especially in English, but also in Persian and several other European and regional languages.

Baluchistan is generally understood by the Baluch and their neighbors to comprise an area of over half a million square kilometers in the southeastern part of the Iranian plateau, south of the central deserts and the Helmand river, and in the arid coastal lowlands between the Iranian plateau and the Gulf of Oman.

Romania’s main international airport, Bucharest Otopeni – Henri Coanda, is named after the great inventor.

At about this time, around Ma, north Wales and south Mayo in Ireland experienced volcanic activity. The remains of these volcanoes are still visible, for example Rhobell Fwar, dating from Ma. Large quantities of volcanic lava and ash known as the Borrowdale Volcanics covered both Wales and the Lake District, still seen in the form of mountains such as Helvellyn and Scafell Pike. In the Silurian Period, between and Ma, the Caledonian fold mountains formed the Caledonian Orogeny , covering much of what is now the UK to perhaps 8, feet 2, m thick.

Volcanic ashes and lavas deposited during this period are still found in the Mendip Hills and in Pembrokeshire. Volcanic deposits formed Ben Nevis in the Devonian Period. Sea levels varied considerably, with the coastline advancing and retreating from north to south across England, and with the deposition of numerous sedimentary rock layers.

The Old Red Sandstone of Devon gave the period its name, though deposits are found in many other places. During the Carboniferous Period, around Ma, the UK was lying at the equator, covered by the warm shallow waters of the Rheic Ocean, during which time the Carboniferous limestone was deposited, still found in areas such as the Mendip Hills and the Pennines.

The coal measures were formed at this time, in river deltas, swamps and rain forests. Coal can be found in many areas of the UK, as far North as Sutherland and as far south as Kent, though it has largely been mined in the Midlands, northern England and Wales.

Northern Pike Eradication

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