David Johnson is an outspoken proponent of mechanical aids to visual art. Unlike the opponents of mechanical aids, his mission is not to prove his talent but to help preserve our vanishing Western cultural heritage. In addition to his mastery of the traditional media, now combines drawing, painting, photography, and digital media with more than thirty years of experience in these fields to create his Realistic Art Numerica in 21st century paintings and pictures. Did you know the Greek word “Photography” means “Painting with Light”? Today with the advent of computers it truly lives up to it’s name. Due to developments in Art and Technology, a broader definition of painting is needed than that which is found in common usage. Introducing Art Numerica- an exciting merger of traditional visual art and cutting edge technology Art Numerica is not limited to realistic art but also offers limitless horizons for everything from cartoons to abstractions. It is the most dramatic development in the visual arts since the Renaissance.
Celtic Myths on creation
But Jesus’ followers during the first four or five generations after his death were far more concerned about sexual morality than Jesus himself had been. One pattern centered on the reproductive function of sex and established nature and the natural as the criterion of what was licit; the second focused on the notion that sex was impure, a source of shame and defilement; the third emphasized sexual relations as a source of intimacy, as a symbol and expression of conjugal love.
Medieval writers placed greater emphasis upon the first two patters, but at various times prior to the Reformation, and in many segments of Christian society since then, all three approaches and the consequences deduced from them have been held and taught in various combinations.
Piecing together the culture and lives of the ancient Celts, in the absence of clear archeological or textual record, is not an easy task.
Viking sites in New Zealand! But so were any New Zealand dinosaurs thirty or so years ago. Now there are many books on such creatures and they have been accepted by orthodox institutions in NZ. So what is the probability of old pre-Maori, Celtic sites? If you have an open and inquiring mind there are many facts, artifacts and oral and written histories that confirm the existence of pre-Maori populations in NZ. Our archaeology has yet to be properly investigated by archaeologists that do not have pre-conceived or politically motivated agendas.
Very ancient written records in Europe and the old world confirm knowledge that New Zealand and Australia existed.
Please click on the following names or images to learn more about these deities:
Background[ edit ] The ancient peoples now called “Celts” spoke a group of languages that had a common origin in the Indo-European language known as Common Celtic or Proto-Celtic. This shared linguistic origin was once widely accepted by scholars to indicate peoples with a common genetic origin in southwest Europe, who had spread their culture by emigration and invasion.
More recent genetic studies have indicated that various Celtic groups do not all have shared ancestry, and have suggested a diffusion and spread of the culture without necessarily involving significant movement of peoples. Carved stone ball from Towie in Aberdeenshire, dated from — BC  Celtic art is associated with the peoples known as Celts; those who spoke the Celtic languages in Europe from pre-history through to the modern period, as well as the art of ancient peoples whose language is uncertain, but have cultural and stylistic similarities with speakers of Celtic languages.
Its English form is modern, attested from
Again, the male head of household was not part of his own familia.
The History and Symbolism of the Celtic Cross
Novelty candy shaped like skulls, pumpkins, bats, worms, etc. Small bags of potato chips, pretzels and caramel corn Chocolates, caramels, and gum Pumpkin and Apple pie ice cream are sometimes enjoyed Around the World Halloween is not celebrated in all countries and regions of the world, and among those that do the traditions and importance of the celebration vary significantly. Celebration in the United States has had a significant impact on how the holiday is observed in other nations.
The history of Halloween traditions in a given country also lends context to how it is presently celebrated. Celtic Christians may have Samhain services that focus on the cultural aspects of the holiday, in the belief that many ancient Celtic customs are “incompatible with the new Christian religion.
She was associated with Hesperia and frequently accompanied by the Oreads, nymphs of the mountains.
The Quest for Meaning The richly layered beauty of knotwork is the most identifiable type of Celtic art and artistry. The mystique of Celtic knot symbolism lies in the complex interlacing of unbroken lines. The interwoven, endless patterns compel all who gaze upon them to ascribe Celtic knotwork meaning and purpose. The Celtic knot is not only beautiful For many, it symbolizes eternity: The Celts were not alone in their regard for trees as sacred living things.
Nevertheless, the Celtic tree of life is unique because of how intricate knotwork connects the branches and the roots. Branches reach high into the heavens, roots dig deep into the Earth, yet all are woven together What does this mystical symbol signify? Sacred Celtic Crosses Crosses have long been a sacred symbol in many cultures all over the world, even before the dawn of Christianity.
One more step
Venus is the Greek goddess of love, beauty and sexuality. According to Greek poet Hesiod, she was born when Cronus cut off Ouranos’ genitals and threw them into the sea, and from the aphros sea foam arose Aphrodite. Because of her beauty other gods feared that jealousy would interrupt the peace among them and lead to war, and so Zeus married her to Hephaestus, who was not viewed as a threat.
Her unhappiness in marriage caused her to frequently seek out the companionship of her lover Ares. Aphrodite also became instrumental in the Eros and Psyche legend, and later was both Adonis’ lover and his surrogate mother.
These new “Ogham Stones” served numerous functions:
Bibliography of Sources for Further Study An Introduction to Celtic History The lands occupied by Celtic peoples, whose existence can be traced over more than 25 centuries, were vast. The Celtic people have mystified anthropologists and historians for generations. They were a non literate culture whose history and literature was preserved through oral tradition.
The only written records of their civilization are the texts left by classical authors, the first of which appear circa BCE. These accounts, inaccurate as they may be, are important in that they demonstrate that the Celts came into cultural contact, and sometimes competition, with the Greeks as well as the Romans. In recent years, modern archeology has been successful in reconstructing an echo of the “voice” of the ancient Celts.
Facets of Celtic society, economy, and religion completely ignored by Classical texts have been brought to light. The classical image of Celtic life describes barbaric men and women dressed in uncured animal skins in primitive villages, people who worshipped strange deities and whose lives were consumed in blood feuds. Because of the authority of the classical authors, these ancient misconceptions were pervasive.
The Celts impressed the Greeks and Romans with their bold dress and powerful appearance. Generally characterized by classical observers as a people of fair hair, of red or gold, and fair complexions, although the people of the British Isles were described as small and dark-haired most Celtic women apparently stood taller than the average Roman citizen. Celtic women, upon reaching maturity, adopted a complex braided style for their hair, and wore dyed and embroidered dresses.
Plaids, or wrapped woven cloaks, were common for men and women alike, and gold and silver torques and armrills, as well as rings, adorned wealthy Celts.
Few symbols are as recognizable as the Celtic Cross as the embodiment of Celtic Christianity. It is popularly believed that St. Patrick introduced the Celtic Cross in Ireland, during his conversion of the kings from paganism to Christianity. Some also believe it was St. Declan who introduced it.
The Picts shared modern Scotland with a zone of Irish cultural influence on the west coast, including Iona , and the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria to the south.
Historical sources[ edit ] Votive Celtic wheels thought to correspond to the cult of Taranis. National Archaeological Museum, France As a result of the scarcity of surviving materials bearing written Gaulish , it is surmised that the most of the Celtic writings were destroyed by the Romans, although a written form of Gaulish using Greek , Latin and North Italic alphabets was used as evidenced by votive items bearing inscriptions in Gaulish and the Coligny calendar. Rome introduced a more widespread habit of public inscriptions, and broke the power of the druids in the areas it conquered; in fact, most inscriptions to deities discovered in Gaul modern France and Northern Italy , Britain and other formerly or presently Celtic-speaking areas post-date the Roman conquest.
Although early Gaels in Ireland and parts of modern Wales used the Ogham script to record short inscriptions largely personal names , more sophisticated literacy was not introduced to Celtic areas that had not been conquered by Rome until the advent of Christianity. Indeed, many Gaelic myths were first recorded by Christian monks, albeit without most of their original religious meanings. Irish mythology Cuchulainn carries Ferdiad across the river The oldest body of myths stemming from the Heroic Age is found only from the early medieval period of Ireland.
The Dagda[ edit ] The leader of the gods for the Irish pantheon appears to have been the Dagda. Celtic gods were also considered to be a clan due to their lack of specialization and unknown origins. The particular character of the Dagda was as a figure of burlesque lampoonery in Irish mythology , and some authors even conclude that he was trusted to be benevolent enough to tolerate jokes at his own expense.
Irish tales depict the Dagda as a figure of power, armed with a club.
Celtic baby names
Food historians generally agree colcannon belongs to the Irish. This conclusion is based on linguistic evidence, ingredient availability, and culinary preference. Combinations of potatoes, cabbage, and leeks were also embraced by many other cultures and cuisines, most notably Germany, Russia, France, Scotland, England. These hardy, economical, filling foods sated the bellies of the working and poorer classes.
The festivities were dedicated to the god known as the “Lady of the Dead”, corresponding to the modern Catrina.
According to another Celtic myth, the creation took place by the primordial, first god who, by means of a melody played by his breath, brought creation into existence. The following passage is from a Celtic myth claiming that in the beginning nothing living existed—not even gods—but that the earth was comprised of land and sea. Once upon a time, there was no time and that was when there also was no gods and no man walked the surface of the land. But there was the sea, and where the sea met the land, a mare was born, white and made of sea-foam.
And her name was Eiocha. From an oak tree that grew in the land there sprouted a plant. This is where Eiocha gave birth to the first god Cernunnos. Cernunnos mated with Eioch and begot more gods; however, the gods felt lonely because they did not have anyone to command or to worship them, so from the wood of the oak tree they created the first man and woman, as well as other animals. Giants, too, are born from the bark of a tree that Eiocha hurled into the water.
Celtic Crosses The weapons and jewellery discovered in Celtic burials in Italy are good illustrations of this new style, the main elements of which were foliage motifs, especially tendril scrolls. Hence one of its names: It is also known as the Waldalgesheim Style, after an important archeological site in Germany. A feature of this prevailing trend in the fourth century BCE was the adoption and transformation of motifs of Greco-Etruscan origin.
One day, Pygmalion was inspired by a dream of Aphrodite to make a woman out of ivory resembling her image, and he called her Galatea.
The earliest true Celtic idiom in the area of arts and crafts was the Hallstatt culture. This derived from the type-site situated in Salzkammergat a salt mine region , near the village of Halstaat in Austria, and lasted from roughly to BCE. Although centred around Austria, the Hallstatt culture spread across central Europe, divided into two zones: The Hallstatt culture was founded on its lucrative European-wide trade in salt, and iron implements, and its prosperity was fully reflected in the burial sites of its chieftains and wealthy nobility, which contained huge quantities of finely crafted artifacts, jewellery, pottery, tools and other objects.
Hallstatt art from Central Europe is noted for its high quality iron tools and weaponry, along with its bronze-based manufacture of decorative items and ornamentation. But relatively few silver or Gold objects have been found from this era. Hallstatt was influenced by the militaristic Mycenean art and culture c. The type-site in Austria, fully excavated by archeologists in the 19th century, included more than 2, graves packed with an assortment of functional and ornamental items.
These and other Hallstatt-era hoards contained a mass of weaponry like axes, javelins, spears, cutting swords, daggers, helmets, bosses, shield plates. Choppers included the famous winged Hallstatt axe, while swords were long and heavy, and their hilts were crescent-shaped, with big pommels, or antennae, while shields were round.
Several broad bronze belts were unearthed, decorated in repousse style with beast and geometric designs. Also found were numerous items of bronze and iron jewellery brooches, ring ornaments, various types of amber and glass beads , many of the objects being decorated with animals and abstract geometrical patterns. Pottery was polychrome but unpainted.
Among the more unusual discoveries was the body of a German chieftain, buried about BCE in a silk cloak almost certainly woven in China.